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In our increasingly digital, mobile, and global world, the existing theories of business and economics have lost much of their appeal with the phenomenal rise of Chindia, the reality of Brexit, and the seismic shifting of the global center of gravity from west to east. In the area of innovation, the traditional thinking that a developed country, often the US, will come up with the next major innovation, launch at home first, and then take it to other markets does not ring true anymore. Similarly, the world where conglomerates from advanced economies go bargain-hunting for acquisitions in emerging markets has been turned upside-down.

This book reveals and illustrates the Global Rule of Three phenomenon, which stipulates that in competitive markets only three companies (which the authors call “generalists”) can dominate the market. All other players in the market are specialists. Further, whereas the financial performance of generalists improves as market share increases, specialist companies see a decrease in financial performance as their market share increases, as the latter are margin-driven companies. This theory powerfully captures the evolution of global markets and what executives must do to succeed. It is based on empirical analyses of hundreds of markets and industries in the US and globally. Competitive markets evolve in a predictable fashion across industries and geographies, where every industry goes through a similar lifecycle from beginning to end (or revitalization). From local to regional to national markets, the last stop in the evolution of markets is going global. The pattern is so consistent that it represents a distinct and natural market structure at every level. The authors offer strategies that generalists and specialists should follow to stay competitive as well as twelve expansion strategies for global companies from emerging markets.

This book chronicles this global evolution and provides impactful managerial implications for executives and students of marketing and corporate strategy alike.

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Congratulations for writing a seminal book on how industries evolve, grow, plateau and revitalize over time! Simultaneous coexistence of both the volume driven full line competitors (oligopoly) and the margin driven niche players (monopolistic competitors) is unique to competitive positioning Globally.

Philip KotlerNorthwestern University

Coming out of the current COVID crisis, many expect further industry consolidation across sectors. The Global Rule of Three lifts the curtain on what this future could look like. The book is packed with great insights into the dynamic forces shaping most industries: above all, that those who know how to truly serve will be the long term winners.

Paul PolmanCo-Founder & Chair, IMAGINE and former CEO, Unilever

The Global Rule of Three is an eye opener! It provides a blue print on how to compete globally especially against growing competition from Multinationals from the Emerging Markets such as China and India. Buy it, you will like it!

Ram CharanBest Selling Author and Advisor to Global Enterprises

The Global Rule of Three offers a plethora of historical as well as contemporary examples to chronicle the evolution of hypercompetition leading up to the current pan-industrial revolution. A must read for every manager interested in the spiraling competition from multinationals of emerging markets such as China and India.

Richard D’AveniBakala Professor of Strategy, Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, USA